Don Juan Archiv - Wien, Forschungsverlag
Gender and Diplomacy: Women and Men in European and Ottoman Embassies from the 15th to the 18th Century

Gender and Diplomacy: Women and Men in European and Ottoman Embassies from the 15th to the 18th Century


Don Juan Archiv Wien

University of Vienna – Institute of History

Stvdivm fæsvlanvm

11th – 12th March 2016

Trautsongasse 6/6, 1080 Vienna



Organized by:

Suna Suner and Reinhard Eisendle (Don Juan Archiv Wien)

Friedrich Edelmayer and Laura Oliván Santaliestra (University of Vienna)

Hans Ernst Weidinger and Marcel Molnár (Stvdivm fæsvlanvm)



Friday, 11th March 2016

09:00–09:30          Opening and Introduction

Matthias J. Pernerstorfer

(Don Juan Archiv Wien)

Laura Oliván Santaliestra

(University of Vienna - Institute of History)

Hans Ernst Weidinger

(Stvdivm fæsvlanvm)

Suna Suner and Reinhard Eisendle

(Don Juan Archiv Wien)

09:30–11:00          Session I    Women in Diplomacy: Theory and Practices


Chair                     Matthias J. Pernerstorfer

1. Tracey Sowerby (University of Oxford)

Elizabeth I (r.1558–1603) and Chivalric Diplomacy


Although Elizabeth I may not have been England’s first queen regnant, it was in her reign that the full implications of female monarchy were felt in English diplomacy. The theoretical justification of English ambassadors had often rested on the political closeness of the ambassador to the monarch, yet an unmarried queen surrounded by rumours of a lack of chastity – her own and her mother’s – had to be careful about just how intimate she appeared to be to her male courtiers and counsellors.

This paper examines gendered notions and chivalry within Elizabethan diplomatic practices. First it examines the extent to which Elizabeth’s ambassadors used chivalry as a means of reconciling their ambassadorial character – that is their position as the proxy of their queen – with Elizabeth’s gender. Chivalric tropes offered a way of expressing their political intimacy with the queen in a way that did not suggest any sexual impropriety (an important consideration given Catholic propaganda against Elizabeth). Secondly, it discusses one aspect of how Elizabeth’s gender impacted upon her own diplomatic practice. Much of Elizabeth’s foreign policy, particularly after 1585, was marked by wars. Yet as a queen she did not command armies herself. Often, Elizabeth allied herself, even paid for, foreign princes such as John Casimir to fight for her. A marked feature of these alliances was the chivalric language through which Elizabeth and her allies discussed their common endeavours. Through gifts, membership of the chivalric orders and the rhetoric of her letters, Elizabeth bound her male military allies to her. Both parties engaged in the fiction that she had princely ‘champions’.


2. Conchi Gutierrez (National Distance Education University of Madrid)

Splendid Women in the Diplomacy of Juan Antonio de Vera (1583-1658), Ambassador of the Catholic King, Philip IV


Juan Antonio de Vera, first Count of La Roca, is mostly known for his treatise on the ambassador: El Embaxador (1620), which was widely known and used in Europe until at least the beginning of the eighteenth century. De Vera’s diplomatic experience spans from 1610 to 1642. In 1610 he was part of the diplomatic service of Gómez Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, III. Duke of Feria (extraordinary Ambassador in Paris). After this, he was on mission for his own embassies to Savoy and Venice, ending in 1642. He met mainly men all through his diplomatic career as it was usual practice at the time. However, some very remarkable women influenced his diplomatic work in different ways. As ambassador to Savoy, he had to deal with Madama Cristina (1606–1663), sister of the French King, Louis XIII (r. 1610–1643) and wife of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (r. 1630–1637) who favoured the precedence of the French ambassador over him in ceremonies, which ultimately led to De Vera’s premature leave of the Sabaudian Court and his failure to establish a permanent Spanish embassy in Savoy as his instructions commanded. Also in his instructions, he was asked to maintain good correspondence with another woman of the royal family, Margarita of Savoy (1589–1655), Philip II’s granddaughter and former Duchess of Mantua (1612), who had been a key actress in the recent Mantua Succession War (1628–1631). De Vera did not forget women in his treatise on the ambassador, where he covers a woman’s suitability for the role of ambassadress and their relationship with secrecy. De Vera also uses remarkable women of the past as examples to follow. These elements will be covered in the paper to build a case-study of the meaningful, though unofficial influence of splendid women on the diplomatic developments of the seventeenth century.


3. Annalisa Biagianti (University of Pisa)

Key Role Figures at the Court of the Queen Gobernadora Mariana of Austria: Women as Intermediaries for the Ambassador of Lucca in Madrid (1662–1674)


This contribution will focus on the twelve-year embassy of Lorenzo Cenami (1613–1686), the ambassador of the Republic of Lucca sent to Madrid in order to confirm Spanish protection for the Republic. Since the embassy started during the last years of the reign of Philip IV (1662–1665) and continued through the regency of Queen Mariana (1665–1676), the reconstruction of the network of relations established by the ambassador at the Court is an interesting case study in order to analyze how the role of female intermediaries, especially prominent women from the Queen's entourage, evolved in the shift from the 'Court of a King' to the 'Court of a Queen'.

The paper has two aims. Firstly, it will underline, with the help of the graph of the ambassador's social network, how his female friends and patrons in Madrid, though not many, were placed in key role positions within the Court, being women closely related to the Queen. Secondly, the reconstruction of a number of cases will show how in diplomatic practice the ambassador created and maintained these connections and used them to promote and defend the interests of his Republic, and even his own.


11:00–11:15            Coffee Break

11:15–12:45            Session II     Diplomacy and Material Culture


   Chair                   Claudia Römer

4. Samuel Morrison Gallacher (The Medici Archive Project, Florence)    

The Diplomatic Gifts of Eleonora di Toledo, Duchess of Florence (1539–1562)


The rise of Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–1574) is one of the most remarkable examples of rulership in early modern Europe. When he unexpectedly succeeded to the duchy of Florence in 1537, few expected much from the eighteen year old who was elected ruler of an impoverished and war-torn state, garrisoned by foreign soldiers, and facing a rebellion from pro-republican patricians. Despite these obstacles, over the course of his reign of thirty-seven years, Cosimo created one of the most important states in Italy – the Grand Duchy of Tuscany – and cultivated the last flowering of the Renaissance. Cosimo’s achievements were founded upon his diplomatic guile which carefully balanced the interests of foreign powers, above all those of the Empire of Charles V and his heirs, in order to expand and strengthen his realm while other states perished. But Cosimo did not undertake this task alone. The documents of the Medici archive, especially those drawn from Mediceo del Principato epistolary collection housed at the Archivio di Stato di Firenze, demonstrate that his wife, Eleonora di Toledo (1522–1562), was not only an instrumental part of Medicean diplomacy in the mid-sixteenth century, but personally directed aspects of the Medici diplomatic network. At Eleonora’s disposal were a number of tools, from patronage and promotion, to personal interventions in the affairs of others, though perhaps her most potent stratagem was the use of gifts. Based on archival sources, this paper will present case studies of how the duchess of Florence was able to influence diplomatic affairs. Gifts will be discussed both for their symbolic meaning and also how they represent the type of relationship that Eleonora was able to build with men of affairs with whom, for political or social reasons, her husband was unable to correspond. Through her family network, contacts with the Spanish Habsburgs, and her social standing across Europe, Eleonora’s gift exchanges strengthened their diplomatic influence to secure and enrich Tuscany, and as such, Eleonora should share credit for forging with her husband what some historians have called the first modern state.


5. Laura Mesotten (European University Institute, Florence)

“Cloth and colour makes an honourable man” – The Role of Dress in the Identity Construction of Sixteenth-century Ambassadors in Venice


“[…] he ought to consider what appearance he wishes to have and what manner of man he wishes to be taken for, and dress accordingly; and see to it that his attire aid him to be so regarded even by those who do not hear him speak or see him do anything whatever.”


This quote from one of the most famous and popular sixteenth-century conduct manuals, Il Cortegiano (Venice, 1528), written by Baldassare Castiglione (1478–1529) evinces the important role of dress in early modern society. Clothing was regarded as an instrument to control and discipline the body and as a way to manifest the virtue and honour of the inner personality. In short, early modern people believed that clothes were essential for identity formation and for the social construction of gender. The study of early modern diplomatic culture has, to date, not systematically integrated the pivotal topic of clothing in its research. However, garments occupied a major place in the day-to-day life of ambassadors since the dressed body enhanced their self-presentation and appropriate clothing functioned as paragon for the prosperity of their nation. Nonetheless, there did not exist an official and uniform public costume for early modern ambassadors due to the fact that conducting diplomatic missions was not yet standardized as an official occupation. Consequently, questions arise regarding the outlook of the attire of an ambassador and the use of dress in diplomatic identity construction: How did ambassadors represent both their official diplomatic identity and private status through dress? Did they absorb local fashions or parade national styles? And how did they construct a shopping network during their mission in order to acquire textiles and accessories? To answer these and other questions, the characteristics of the dress of French ambassadors residing in Venice, known for its strong textile industry, during the second half of the sixteenth century will be exposed. This presentation will underline that also in the lives of sixteenth-century ambassadors clothes served as important identity markers exposing gender, rank and status.


6. Pablo Hernández Sau (European University Institute, Florence)

The 1784 Spanish Gift-Embassy to Constantinople: Juan de Bouligny (1736-1798) and the Practice of Gift-Embassies


The 1782 peace treaty between the Spanish and the Ottoman empires signed 24th December opened peaceful and relatively fluid diplomatic relations on the two sides of the Mediterranean Sea, which led to the dispatch of embassies dedicated exclusively to gifts. Gift-embassies were frequent in the Ottoman territories, as was the case of Austrian embassies of 1628 or 1650; but it was an infrequent practice for the Spanish administration until 1782. However, by the last decade of the 18th century, it had become a rooted and regular diplomatic practice. In 1784, the Spanish Monarchy sent the first of a series of gift-embassies to Istanbul. Juan de Bouligny (1736–1798), the first Spanish permanent ambassador in Istanbul, established a pattern of cross-cultural diplomatic practice used after in other Muslim Mediterranean Courts, such as Algiers, Tunisia, Rabat, or Tripoli. This required thorough knowledge about court protocols, making it necessary to find the similarities and asymmetries between the two courts. As Sanjay Subrahmanyan has explained for the Portuguese - Asian court encounters, the fact that the courts didn’t share genealogical entangles or overlapping court cultures, made it necessary to notice the similarities, and to commensurate the differences between them, hence a process of commensurability of the court. The court asymmetry between Istanbul and Madrid comprised a diplomatic challenge for the Spanish administration, which created the need of a process of commensurability. This process involved understanding the Ottoman court’s consumption habits; how the Spanish Empire could cover these needs; and the necessity of acting appropriately according to the protocols of Istanbul.

The aim of this presentation is to analyse the gifts as a materialization of that process of commensurability between asymmetrical courts. The analysis of that transcultural process requires recovering the practice of the diplomats, the global flows of knowledge, and the connectivity of global consumption associated to the gifts. Therefore, through these, I will show the complexity associated to the 1784 gift-embassy, as part of a much complex process of establish cross-cultural diplomatic relations.



12:45–14:30           Lunch Break


14:30–16:00           Session III    An Ambassador’s Wife: The Ambassadress

            Chair                         Reinhard Eisendle

7. Laura Oliván Santaliestra (University of Vienna

Who was the embajadora?: The Ambassadors’ Wives Working in Madrid (1663–1677))


At the end of the Sixteenth Century, the ambassador’s wife started to be called the ambassadress. Women were not allowed to have an official post in the embassy, therefore…Why received the ambassador’s wife the title of ambassadress? Who was the embajadora? Was she a wife, a courtesan, a spy or only a noble ‘woman’? Had she political, cultural or social duties? Were these fuctions secret or recognized? Did she act in couple, with her husband? To what extent was her diplomatic activity accepted at Court?

This paper is focused on the diplomatic role of two Imperial ambassadresses in Spain: Marie Sophie von Dietrichstein, Countess of Pötting (1653–1711), and Johanna Theresia Lamberg, Countess of Harrach (1639–1716). These years (1663–1677) are chosen due to two reasons: first, during this period the relations between the Spanish Monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire were marked by the Question of Succession, a very important issue in Europe; and second, in these years Mariana of Austria was consort, regent and queen mother at the Alcázar. This queen maintained a personal and political relationship with the Imperial ambassadresses, which contributed to enhance their tasks.

The main purposes of this contribution are to define the concept of embajadora at the Court of Madrid, and to demonstrate that she, the embajadora, ‘worked’; and she worked a lot.


8. Wolfram Aichinger (University of Vienna)

The Imperial Ambassador and His Spouse at the Comedies: Secrecy and the Rhetoric of Diplomacy on Calderón’s Stage and in Count Pötting’s Diary (1663–1674)


In the diary kept during his stay in Madrid between 1663 and 1674, Count Franz von Pötting (1627–1678) preserved valuable information both for the history of theatre and the history of 17th century diplomacy. Pötting recorded the plays he attended, their themes, protagonists, genres and outstanding motifs. He also commented on the quality of the performance, on the configuration of the audience and on incidents of political relevance related to these social events.

The presentation will feature mutual interferences between the communicative logic of diplomacy on one side and dramatic dialogue and interaction on the other, focusing on Calderón’s plays El secreto a voces and El postrer duelo de España: As for diplomacy, apart from letter writing, much of Pötting’s time was spent on meetings and visits. On these highly ritualised occasions, language often was not meant to give information; instead, words were put at the service of “secondary” interactive goals: to guess at secret plans and intentions, to assess an ally’s loyalty, to breed discord, to deny betrayal, to attract the interlocutor’s affection through flattery or excessive generosity, to tease out facts by telling lies… Both the ambassador and his wife, I will surmise, were skilled in this very special art of conversation. Theatre was the medium through which the required communicative techniques were shaped, reflected and refined. Moreover, theatre – specialised as it was on believed realities and illusions – provided the scripts and scenarios for a clever management of confidence, secrets and lies.


9. Armando Fabio Ivaldi (Organisation Internationale des Experts / Paris, Geneva)

Ernestine Aloysia Ungnad von Weissenwolff, contessa Durazzo (1732–1794). Riflessioni per una ricostruzione biografica


Da non molti anni, gli studiosi del compositore Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714–1787) hanno finalmente compreso l’importanza di separare saggi e monografie sul noto compositore da quelli invece indirizzati a un’approfondita e seria ricostruzione biografica del conte Giacomo Durazzo (1717–1794). Il nobile genovese, transfuga dalla propria patria, grazie all’appoggio del Cancelliere di Stato Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz-Rietberg (1711–1794) diresse i teatri imperiali viennesi per un lungo periodo (1754–1764), legando il suo nome sia alla “riforma” dell’opera seria e del balletto pantomimo del secondo Settecento sia facendo la fortuna dello stesso Gluck. L’inizio di queste ricerche più mirate ha inoltre consentito di meglio comprendere, in particolare, non pochi aspetti e vicende del periodo viennese del Generalspektakeldirektor, ricco di nuovi fermenti teatrali legati al coevo gusto francese, e la sua abilità ‘registica’, anche se molto rimane ancora da chiarire. Direi sia giunto però il momento d’iniziare ad analizzare con sistematicità anche la personalità della moglie di Durazzo, Ernestine Aloysia Ungnad von Weissenwolf (1742–1794), gran dama della corte di Vienna.

La poliedrica figura di Durazzo, caratterizzata da periodi di grande fortuna ma anche di grandi disgrazie; con voci insistenti sulle sue avventure galanti, specie con attrici e ballerine (per altro ricambiate dalla moglie, per ripicca o per moda dell’epoca, poiché l’aristocrazia viennese non aveva costumi così probi, come avrebbe invece voluto Maria Teresa d’Asburgo-Lorena, nonostante i suoi severi decreti al riguardo); i molteplici interessi artistici del conte che supplirono le forzate dimissioni da Generalspektakedirektor con l’allontanamento dalla grande politica, seguiti da una vita assai meno brillante come ambasciatore cesareo a Venezia (1764–1784) con uno spirito sempre però «très vital», presupponevano certo una moglie di doti e intelligenza non comuni. Soprattutto di una donna e di una dama in grado di adattarsi a una vita spesso imprevedibile, per quanto ricca di stimoli artistici e culturali perseguiti dal marito, cui Ernestine Aloysia partecipò più attivamente specie nel periodo veneziano, conservando sempre un carattere forte e risoluto. È innegabile comunque che, nonostante le alterne vicende della loro intensa vita, si sia rivelato piuttosto profondo il loro reciproco rapporto affettivo, poiché rimasero insieme fino alla fine della loro esistenza terrena, condividendo l’indigenza e l’isolamento degli ultimi anni a Venezia. Questa relazione ha quindi lo scopo di focalizzare alcuni aspetti fondamentali della personalità di Ernestine Aloysia, al fine di stimolare l’inizio di studi e ricerche più accurate su di lei e forse anche per meglio comprendere quelli del consorte, Giacomo Durazzo, e di alcune sue ‘scelte vitali’.


16:00–16:15           Coffee Break


16:15–17:45            Session IV    Ambassadresses, Vicerreines and Lovers in Italy

  Chair                        Laura Oliván Santaliestra

10. David García Cueto (University of Granada)

A Spanish Ambassadress in Rome: Doña Leonor de Melo, Marchioness of Castel Rodrigo (1632–1641)


Among the Spanish ambassadresses present in Rome during the reign of Philip IV (1621–1665), the most eminent place is occupied by doña Leonor de Melo, second marchioness of Castel Rodrigo (1583– 1641). Her husband, don Manuel de Moura y Corte Real (1592–1651), maintained a strong rivalry with the prime minister of the Spanish king, Philip IV (1621–1665), don Gaspar de Guzmán, count-duke of Olivares (1587–1645). For that reason, Don Manuel was declared ambassador to the pope in 1630, as a way of keeping him away from the Madrid court. He arrived in Rome in 1632 with his wife, sons and servants. The permanence of Castel Rodrigo at the papal court was extraordinarily long. Instead of three years, the usual duration of an embassy in that context, he was in the Holy City almost nine. Thus, his wife doña Leonor became a principal actress in the Roman scene for nine years, representing the King of Spain but also herself as marchioness of Castel Rodrigo and descendant of the Kings of Portugal. This paper analyzes all these circumstances, focusing specially on the participation of doña Leonor in Roman public life, in her contact with religious institutions and in her cultural interests in that period.


11. José María Domínguez (University of La Rioja)

Singing, Love and Politics: The Revisited Case of La Giorgina (1666–1730), Mistress of Luis de la Cerda y Aragón, IXth Duke of Medinaceli


Angela Maddalena Voglia detta Giorgina (1666–1730) was a very famous singer in Christina of Sweden's Rome late in the 17th century. Some libels accused her even of being the cause of the death of the queen, in addition to provoking the banning of opera performance in Rome by pope Innocence XI Odescalchi (1676–1689). She was viewed as symbol of scandal and controversy, often attached to her role as singer and musician. Immediately after the death of Queen Christina, in 1689, the Spanish ambassador to the Holy See, Luis de la Cerda y Aragón, IXth duke of Medinaceli (1660–1711), assumed the protection of Giorgina, becoming the blank of satires and criticism by the romans as far as don Luis did make nothing to hide their relationship. He took her to Naples, when became viceroy of the kingdom in 1696 and then to Spain, where he returned in 1702 and died in 1711. Only then Giorgina went back to her natal Rome. While her public image rises from 1689 onwards, significantly she never sang in a public opera theatre, despite the interest that don Luis showed towards this genre as means of political propaganda.

The avvisi and diaries both of Rome and Naples are filled with news on the adulterous relation of the couple. There are also plenty of libels and satirical works against her. These have been usually the sources for scholars that therefore result in a very concrete discourse on her public life. This paper will examine and consider a different kind of sources: private correspondence that allows a new portrait of the singer, focusing on her personal relation with Medinaceli and his political and cultural entourage. In addition, revisiting the case of Giorgina affords new insights on other famous female singers from 17th-century Italy.


12. Pia Wallnig (Austrian State Archives)    

Court Lady – Ambassadrice – Vicereine: The Life and Career of Maria Ernestine Countess Harrach (née Dietrichstein, widowed Gallas), (1683-1745)


Maria Ernestine (1683–1745) was born countess Dietrichstein, widowed countess Gallas, and remarried countess Harrach. Her life can serve as an example for the career of a noblewoman coming from the court nobility of the Habsburg lands, who managed to achieve some of the top positions in

the emerging “Monarchia Austriaca” of the early eighteenth century. Thanks to her marriages (with Johann Wenzel count Gallas in 1716 and Alois Thomas Raimund count Harrach in 1721) she became twice the vicereine of Naples, and from 1716 to 1719 she was the Imperial ambassadrice in Rome on the side of her first husband, Johann Wenzel count Gallas (1669–1719). As she had married count Gallas quite late, at the age of thirty-three, her career as court lady had been very long, provided that she had arrived at court as early as c. 1700. Maria Ernestine ended her court life as lady-in-waiting for empress Elisabeth Christine (1711–1740), after having made several acquaintances at court, also from among the members of the imperial family, and above all with emperor Charles VI’s (1711–1740) sister Maria Elisabeth (1680–1741), later Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Maria Ernestine’s only child also called Maria Elisabeth (1718–1737) married a son of her second husband and died young. After the death of her daughter Maria Ernestine employed all her energy and resources for the career of her son-in-law, who at the same time was her stepson – Ferdinand Bonaventura II count Harrach (1708–1770).

Various sources document Maria Ernestine’s career path and shall be outlined in the presentation: her own correspondence and other letters mentioning her; her personal papers, including her will and endowments, as well as economic records kept in the Harrach family archives. A ceremonial instruction designed for her personally, and containing guidance and examples from the office of her predecessors, illustrates her role as Imperial ambassadrice in Rome. Additional sources include the recently published ceremonial instructions from the viceroyal court of Naples, as well as material from the context of the Viennese court; such as marriage contracts, Maria Ernestine’s payroll as a court lady (Hofzahlamtsbücher), memoirs and reports. All this has to be viewed taking into account recent scholarship on the range of action of noblewomen in political contexts of the early modern period. Hence, I am interested in how Maria Ernestine – as a court lady, an ambassadrice, and a vicereine – actually viewed her status, her offices, and the court at large. Unlike some of her female comtemporaries, she certainly was not able to exert substantial influence on the diplomatic relations of the Viennese court, yet the sources show her as an important hub in the cultural and social network of noble families setting out to redefine the Habsburg commonwealth, and making use of the often new offices available to them in the territories the “Monarchia Austriaca” had received after the peace treaties of Utrecht and Ratstatt in 1714 from the Spanish monarchy (Naples, Lombardy, Austrian Netherlands).


17:45–18:30           Bread & Wine

18:30–19:00           Concert      Barock Cello by José Ignacio Perbech

The Origins of the Violoncello-Solo:

Vitali, degli Antonii and Gabrielli.

Bologna 17th Century


* * *


Saturday, 12th March 2016

09:30–11:00            Session V    Marriage Affairs and Diplomacy

   Chair                        Suna Suner

13. Roberta Anderson (Premodern Diplomats Network / Bath Spa University

A Bridegroom for Elizabeth: Diplomatic Negotiations for the Marriage of Princess Elizabeth (1610 – 1613) )


After 1603 there was an outbreak of wedding fever at the English court, aptly summed up by John Chamberlain, who writes that ‘all the talke now is of masking and feasting at these towardly marriages.’ In these early years of James VI & I’s reign (1603–1625), marriage played a key role in defining his identity as Rex Pacificus. After a flurry of high-profile court weddings aimed in some way or another at stabilising political tensions, protracted negotiations with several European nations culminated in Princess Elizabeth (1596–1662), only surviving daughter of James and Anna of Denmark, marrying Frederick, Elector Palatine, on Valentine’s Day, 1613. This paper will uncover some of the proposed bridegrooms offered for Elizabeth, and will examine the negotiations which took place to allow James to settle on Frederick V.


14. Rocío Martínez (National Distance Education University of Madrid)

Queen María Anna of Neuburg (1667–1740) and the Austracist Myth: Her Secret Treaty with Maximillian II Emmanuel of Bavaria


Maria Anna of Neuburg (1667–1740) was the second wife of King Charles II of Spain (r. 1665–1700), the last monarch of the House of Habsburg in Spain. She was one of the most powerful women of the last decade of the seventeenth century and had a key role both in the government of Spain and the problem of the Spanish Succession while she was married to Charles II. But, because she was the sister-in-law of Emperor Leopold I (r. 1658–1705), as the younger sister of his third wife, Empress Eleonora (1655–1720), it has been traditionally assumed that Maria Anna was an advocate of her nephew, archduke Charles’ (1685–1740) candidacy to her husband’s succession. But the documents of the time reveal that this assumption is not quite true. Maria Anna of Neuburg, who maintained a very strained relationship with Leopold I, offered her ‘services’ to the defendants of other candidates to the Spanish succession, the French king Louis XIV (r. 1643–1715) and Maximilian II Emmanuel of Bavaria (r. 1679–1726), father of Prince Joseph Ferdinand (1692–1699). And it was precisely Maximilian Emmanuel, the Elector of Bavaria, who won her favor at the end, and the documents prove it.

In this paper, I want to dispel the myth of Queen Maria Anna as an austracist and bring to light a secret agreement arranged between said queen and Maximilian II Emmanuel of Bavaria. In it, it was said that the queen Maria Anna of Neuburg would convince Charles II to name Maximilian’s son, the aforementioned Joseph Ferdinand, as the sole heir to the Spanish Monarchy. In exchange of her intervention, the queen asked Maximilian for a large number of benefits to assure her future after Charles II’s death. Amongst them, we can find a demand of a large sum of money from the moment that the young prince Joseph Ferdinand was called to Spain until her own death, and political influence in the form of a viceroyalty that would be given to her for life, or in the case she would die before her husband, said dignity would be given to one of her siblings. These are only some of the stipulations of this very interesting agreement that was negotiated between the queen and the elector during the year 1698. They reached an agreement and Joseph Ferdinand was, in fact, appointed as the sole heir of the Spanish Monarchy, but the sudden death of Joseph Ferdinand in the first months of 1699 put an end to this agreement. However, the close diplomatic relationship forged between Queen Maria Anna and Maximilian II Emmanuel continued over the next months and also after Charles II’s disappearance. With this paper, I want to present this interesting agreement and revisit the myth of Maria Anna as an advocate of the archduke Charles during her husband’s life, showing that this statement was never quite true.


15. Ekaterina Domnina (Moscow State Lomonosov University)

Count Andrey Matveyev, His Wives and Russian Diplomatic Culture of the Petrine Era (1682–1725)


The paper will focus on one of the first Russian resident ambassadors on Count Andrey Artamonovitch Matveev (also Matveyev, 1666–1728) and his impact on the ‘westernization’ of the Russian diplomatic culture during the age of the Petrine reforms. Matveev’s missions to the Dutch Republic, Austria, France and England have been well studied before, but have never been discussed from the ‘gender’ point of view. Matveev was one of the first Russian ambassadors, who took his family with him on his missions. He made a remarkable effort to educate not only his sons, but also his wives and daughters – thus he encouraged to shape new attitudes towards women, which was being promoted during the Petrine period. He was married three times and all of his wives were somewhat privy to his diplomatic work. Although the overall information about them is scant, it is still possible to evaluate their role in the shaping of the new Russian diplomatic practice.


11:00–11:15              Coffee Break


11:15–12:15              Session VI    Women in French Diplomacy in the 17th Century

     Chair                         Luis Tercero Casado

16. Camille Desenclos (Université de Haute-Alsace)

Women’s Place in Diplomacy through the French Diplomatic Correspondences in the Early 17th Century


Adventure novels are full of stories in which women lead tricky and high-level spying missions. But during the early modern era, women seem excluded from the practice of permanent diplomacy, nevertheless they were used exceptionally for some negotiations as an extra strength. Diplomatic offices are indeed reserved to men. Women cannot be found as ambassadors, agents or even as regular diplomatic correspondents. However, they can be found at the head of a state like Marie de Médicis, French regent in the 1610s (1610–1617) or Infanta Isabella, governor of the Spanish Netherlands in the (1621–1633). But in a social sense, should we really consider those sovereigns as ‘women’? Or does diplomacy remain anyway a ‘men’s’ business?

As major communication tool of the early modern diplomacy, the correspondence –is now the only way, for historians, to learn about diplomatic manners and practices. Based on the correspondences which have been sent and received by the French diplomacy during the first quarter of the 17th century, this paper will seek to analyze the epistolary networks, the writing usages of queens and female sovereigns and the mentions of women within men letters. By this way we will able to define more precisely the place of women within the daily diplomatic practice and to learn to know if they are only social tools or have some political influence which can be used for creating networks, if only the function matters while practicing diplomacy.


17. John Condren (University of St. Andrews / University of Limerick)

Women as Negotiators and Political Actors: Case-Studies from Louis XIV’s (r.1643–1715) Interactions with the Princes of Italy


Louis XIV’s (1638 – 1715) foreign policies have received significant historiographical attention, as well as the role of women at his lavish and luxurious court. This paper aims to combine two popular topics in discussions of the Sun King’s influence. It focuses on the understudied multi-faceted relationships Louis (and before him, Cardinal Mazarin) had established with the small princely courts of northern Italy. The case-studies discussed here reflect the significance of women in different capacities. Firstly, at Modena, the duchess-regent Laura Martinozzi di Fano (Mazarin’s niece, 1637–1687) had to be subjected to intense French diplomatic pressure before she would finally allow her daughter, Maria Beatrice d’Este, to marry James Stuart, Duke of York. This paper considers the comments which French diplomats made about her style of governance, in light of her deceased husband’s previous support for France (Alfonso IV, 1634–1662). Secondly, at Florence in the 1660s and 1670s, the marquise de Deffans was one of Marguérite-Louise d’Orléans’s ladies-in-waiting during her ill-fated marriage to Grand Prince Cosimo de’ Medici (1642–1723), who would become Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1670. Some of Mme. Deffans’s letters have survived: they offer an insight into her role as pacifier of the headstrong Marguérite-Louise, who was an unwilling part of the French king’s plan to subvert Spanish influence in northern and central Italy. Thirdly, this paper analyses the inter-familial rivalries at the Gonzaga-Nevers court in Mantua in the late 1670s, in which the females of the Cavriani and Amorotto casate played their part. These rivalries affected French interests insofar as the dissolute duke of Mantua’s government (dominated by the marchese di Cavriani, 1626–1695) was divided over whether or not to formally ally itself with Louis XIV in defiance of the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of Spain. In total, this paper offers considerations of how women could influence and hinder the progress of 17th-century negotiations, in a historical narrative dominated by powerful men – none more powerful than Louis himself.



12:15–12:30              Coffee Break

12:30–13:30              Session VII    Cases of Ottoman Diplomacy

     Chair                          Laura Oliván Santaliestra

18. Luis Tercero Casado (University of Vienna)

A Turk in Planet King’s Court: Political and Sociocultural Controversies of an Ottoman Embassy to Madrid (1649–1650)


Since Charles V’s time (r. 1519–1556) no envoy from the Sublime Porte had set foot in Spain. The sudden arrival in Madrid of an Ottoman embassy in 1649 raised many questions throughout the main European courts, but primarily in two of them had reason enough to be concerned: Venice, due to the ongoing War of Candia (1645–1669), and the Holy Roman Empire, in close and fragile vicinity with the Ottoman Empire. Emperor Ferdinand III (r. 1637–1657), head of the other main line of the Habsburgs, wondered which intentions where behind this embassy and how it would affect the relations with Madrid. As for Venice, whose relations with the Spanish Monarchy lacked harmony, much was on stake regarding its survival on the island of Crete. But manifold questions had also arisen at the very court of Madrid: How could the very pious King Philip IV (r. 1621–1665), self-proclaimed guarantor of the Catholic faith, handle such an embassy awkward to the Spanish court? Did the court rise to this challenge? Was it successful in integrating an envoy from the “archenemy” of Christendom within a courtly order under tight surveillance of the Inquisition? Which dimensions did such “cultural shock” possess? It is our purpose to give answers to these questions on a controversial embassy in a key period of pragmatic adaptation for the Spanish Monarchy.


19. Osman Nihat Bişgin (National Palaces – Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul)

The Embassy of Seyyid Ali Efendi to France (1797-1802): The Impressions of an Ottoman Diplomat on Europe and European Theatre through his Sefâretnâme


Ottoman State started to assign permanent ambassadors in Europe by the end of the18th century. This was a change ventured to following the ad hoc diplomacy which prevailed until then. With the resident embassy of Yusuf Âgâh Efendi to London (1793), recently established French Directoire (1795) insisted enthusiastically on receiving a resident ambassador to Paris. Moralı Seyyid Ali Efendi who had previously served in finance was assigned to Paris in 1797. On a deck of the ship named Fiore del Levante he spent many days to arrive Marseille. The gifts to the Directoire were not ready yet, so he kept some ıtr (pelargonium) to offer as a quick gift. Rose essence would be also given as a gift to please the ladies. His sojourn which was expected to be three years lasted in fact five years and six months as an outcome of the Egyptian Campaign of France (1798). No matter that he was initially assigned as plenipotentiary for the Treaty of Amiens (1802), Gâlip Efendi (plenipotentiary in 1802) replaced him; therefore Seyyid Ali Efendi returned to İstanbul, following the way through Vienna, Bucharest, Silistra and finally Varna, where he embarked on a ship to İstanbul.

During his mission in France, Seyyid Ali Efendi did not miss the chance of visiting theatres. Soon after he left his quarantine in Marseille, he watched Le Petit Matelot of Pigault-Lebrun (Paris, 1796). In Lyon where he stayed for three days, he watched Lodoïska (Paris, 1791) of Luigi Cherubuni (1760–1842). After all this cultural experience, he made theatre also as topic in his sefâretnâme, describing the performance of Zaïre (Paris, 1732) of Voltaire in detail, where he also made his own definitions of tragedy and comedy. In this paper Seyyid Ali’s travel to France and his embassy are focused on, in the light of his sefâretnâme and newspapers.



13:30–13:45              Closure and Reflections





Wolfram Aichinger

Wolfram Aichinger teaches Spanish culture and literature at the University of Vienna. He conducts the research project titled Secrets and Secrecy in Calderón's Comedies and in Spanish Golden Age Culture. He has published a critical edition of the comedy El secreto a voces of Calderón de la Barca (2016), the book El fuego de San Antón y los hospitales antonianos en España (2009) and the monography Laute Geheimnisse. Calderón de la Barca und die Chiffren des Barock (2011, together with Simon Kroll). He has also published on secrets in baroque, smells and olfactory perceptions in the seventeenth century. Aichinger currently prepares a research project about pregnancy, labour and midwives in the Baroque Era. 



Roberta Anderson

Dr Roberta Anderson FHEA, FRHistS, is a Senior Lecturer in Early Modern History at Bath Spa University, Bath in the UK. She has published widely on themes in early modern diplomacy and religion. Her latest publication, ‘John Foxe's seely, poore women’, was published in the Downside Review 133/467 (2015), pp.4-40.



Annalisa Biagianti

Annalisa Biagianti is a PhD candidate at the University of Pisa. Her thesis analyzes the diplomatic functions of the French consuls in the ports of the Adriatic Sea between the eighteenth century and the Napoleonic Era, focusing especially on consular practice and social networks. In her master’s thesis she focused on the diplomatic activities of the Republic of Lucca, which she has continued to study later on. 



Osman Nihat Bişgin

Born in İstanbul in 1986, Osman Nihat Bişgin has been a guide for eight years at the National Palaces - Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul. He completed his B.A. in English Language Teaching and an M.A. in Modern History with a thesis titled ‘‘Embassy of Seyyid Ali Efendi to France (1797-1802)’’. He represented the National Palaces textile section during the 3rd International Museology Forum in Ulan-Bator, in September 2015. He has published in the National Palaces magazines. Bişgin is also a project member at the Turkish Grand National Assembly.  



John Condren

John Condren received an LLB. in Law and European Studies from the University of Limerick in 2009, followed by an MLitt. in Reformation Studies from the University of St Andrews in 2010. He completed his PhD at St Andrews in 2015 with a dissertation titled “Louis XIV et le repos de l’Italie: French policy towards the duchies of Parma, Modena, and Mantua-Monferrato, 1659-1689” under supervision of Guy Rowlands. He is currently a teaching assistant and lecturer at the University of Limerick. His first article was published in August 2015 in The International History Review, 37:4, entitled “The dynastic triangle in international relations: Modena, England and France, 1678-1685”. His interests include European diplomatic, political, cultural, military and religious history from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.     



Camille Desenclos

Since September 2015, Camille Desenclos is maître de conférences in information history at the university of Upper Alsace. She defended her PhD thesis at the École nationale des chartes in December 2014 under the title “Words of Power: The Political Communication of France in the Holy Roman Empire at the Beginning of the Thirty Years War (1617-1624)”. Since then, she has enlarged her research areas and currently works both on the diplomatic relationships between France and the Holy Roman Empire (first quarter of seventeenth century) and on the writing process of political information and diplomatic correspondence (end of sixteenth and beginning of seventeenth century). She is leading a research project in collaboration with the French National Library on the practices of cryptography within the French diplomacy from sixteenth to the first half on the seventeenth century.



José María Domínguez 

José María Domínguez is European Doctor (Complutensian University, 2010). Previously he was Predoctoral Fellow in the program Formación del Profesorado Universitario (FPU). He was visiting scholar at Cambridge University, University of Palermo and University of Naples. In 2011, he obtained a research grant of musicology at the Real Academia de España in Rome. He has taught at the University of Extremadura and was postdoctoral Fellow in the program Juan de la Cierva at the University of La Rioja. He is a specialist on the mobility of musicians and patrons between Italy and Spain at the time of Arcangelo Corelli and Alessandro Scarlatti. José María Domínguez has published articles in peer-reviewed journals such as Reales Sitios, Early Music, Saggiatore Musicale y Eighteenth Century Music. He is the author of the book Roma, Nápoles, Madrid. Mecenazgo musical del duque de Medinaceli, 1687-1710 (2013, Reichenberger). He is currently teaching at the Master’s Program of Musicology at the University of La Rioja.



Ekaterina Domnina

Ekaterina Domnina studied history at the Moscow State Lomonosov University (MGU), Trinity College, Dublin and Yale University. She received her doctoral degree from the Moscow State Lomonosov University in 2008 upon completing a dissertation project titled ‘England and the Roman Curia (1485-1558)’. Ekaterina currently teaches various courses on European and British history at the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Area Studies of the same university. Her research interests focus on

Early Modern European history and culture.



Reinhard Eisendle

Reinhard Eisendle works at the Don Juan Archiv Wien. His research interests involve the history of theatre of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, especially the relationship of theatre and politics. His most recent work titled Der einsame Zensor: Zur staatlichen Kontrolle des Theaters unter Maria Theresia and Joseph II will be published by Hollitzer Wissenschaftsverlag. He was curator of many exhibitions among them “Salieri sulle tracce di Mozart„ in Milan (2004) and “Mozart. Experiment Aufklärung„ in Vienna (2006). He is also an advisor to opera productions and dramaturg of contemporary theatre. 



Samuel Morrison Gallacher

Samuel Morrison Gallacher MA PhD read history at Peterhouse, University of Cambridge, graduating in 2009 with First Class Honors and the Sir Herbert Butterfield Prize for History. He was the Lady Ward Scholar in Historical Studies during his MPhil, also taken at Cambridge and completed in 2010. He finished his doctorate at IMT Institute for Advanced Studies in Lucca, Italy in 2015 with a thesis entitled, “Gift Exchange at the Court of Cosimo I de’ Medici, 1537-1574”. Gallacher has been a Thesaurus Poloniae Junior Fellow, an ICOM Europe Affiliated Researcher, a Samuel Freeman Charitable Trust Fellow, and in 2014, a Junior Research Fellow at the Medici Archive Project. His research centers on early modern diplomatic history, especially the role of gifts in Medicean diplomacy in the sixteenth century, but also more broadly, the engagement of the grand-ducal Medici family in diplomatic ceremonies and negotiations. He is currently Assistant Director of the Medici Archive Project where he is responsible for the book series, Medici Studies, published with Brepols/Harvey Miller, the administration of the fellowship and internship programs, as well as research coordinator for the Medici Archive Project’s initiatives in the field of digital humanities.



David García Cueto 

Dr. David García Cueto teaches at the Art History Department of the Universidad de Granada in Spain. He does research on the artistic relations between Italy and Spain during the seventeenth century, and has published several articles in journals such as Archivo Español de Arte, Sculpture Journal, Goya or Storia dell’Arte. He is the author of Seicento boloñés y Siglo de Oro español (Madrid, 2006). Recently he has started research on the patronage of Philip IV’s ambassadors in Rome.



Conchi Gutierrez

Conchi Gutierrez has a degree in History from the UNED, the Distance Learning University of Spain. Her research field is the communication and dissemination of political ideas in the seventeenth century. Currently she is preparing her doctoral thesis on the influence of the theory and practice of the diplomacy of Juan Antonio de Vera, the first count of La Roca (1583–1658) in Early Modern Spain, France and Italy. She has lectured for the Renaissance Society of America and the Premodern Diplomats Network in 2014 and 2015. She is a telecommunication engineer developing her professional career in the field of international knowledge networks for communication and information technologies. 



Pablo Hernández Sau

PhD researcher at the HEC department of the European University Institute since 2014 under the supervision of Regina Grafe, Pablo Hernández Sau’s research focuses on families and globalization in the eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth century. This relates generally to the global, transnational, social, economic and the new diplomatic history. Prior to that he completed the M.A. program in History at the Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Seville) under the supervision of Manuel Herrero, and received his B.A. in History from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (2007–2012).



Armando Fabio Ivaldi

Ha compiuto i suoi studi formativi tra Genova, Firenze e Bologna. Laureatosi in Letteratura Italiana (indirizzo teatro e spettacolo) e quindi in Storia dell’Arte (indirizzo medievale-moderno) e già membro titolare dell’Organisation Internationale des Experts (con sedi a Ginevra e Parigi), ha collaborato e collabora con vari enti. Fra gli altri: l’Accademia Musicale Chigiana di Siena, la Fondazione “Gioachino Rossini” di Pesaro, la Fondazione “Giorgio Cini” di Venezia, la Fondazione “Gaetano Donizetti” di Bergamo, l’Istituto per la “Cultura e l’Immagine di Roma”, il Centro di Musica Antica “Pietà dei Turchini” di Napoli e il Dipartimento di Lingue e Culture del Mediterraneo dell’Università di Firenze. Nel 1997 ha tenuto alcune lezioni su Alessandro Sanquirico e la scenografia romantica presso l’Università “Federico II” di Napoli e, all’inizio del 2011, una serie di conferenze con diapositive e videoclip sullo sviluppo della scenografia dal tardo Cinquecento alla metà dell’Ottocento, nell’ambito di un master sulle arti visive, tenutosi in Spagna presso l’Università di Vigo. Nel 2012, su richiesta dell’Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Zagabria, ha contribuito alla realizzazione del film-documentario Il Vate di Dubrovnich. Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich, prodotto dalla Radiotelevisione Croata (Hrtvatska Radiotelevizjia), specie nella parte riguardante la villa del conte Giacomo Durazzo a Mestre, dove fu appunto ospitato il Padre Ruggero Boscovich, famoso letterato e scienziato dalmata, nell’autunno del 1772. Pubblica su riviste specializzate di Storia dell’Arte, di Musicologia e di Storia del ballo teatrale o in volumi nati da Convegni e Seminari Internazionali di Studio. È uno degli iniziatori della riscoperta della scenografia e della scenotecnica fra il secolo XVI e il XIX (di cui ha iniziato a interessarsi dal 1973, ancora molto giovane, con grandi maestri quali Maria Teresa Muraro, Mercedes Viale Ferrero e Elena Povoledo che lo ha sempre considerato un suo “discepolo”); sia degli studi sugli “apparati effimeri” barocchi (con Giulio Carlo Argan, Corrado Maltese, Alvise Zorzi, Nino Carboneri e Maurizio Fagiolo Dell’Arco). Nel corso degli anni, si è progressivamente occupato di molti e diversi argomenti (artistici, operistici e teatrali), differenti tra loro anche nei secoli considerati, che hanno spesso privilegiato importanti centri culturali e sedi di grandi corti, fra Cinquecento e Ottocento, tra cui Ferrara, Parigi, Parma, Roma, Venezia, Vienna, Torino e, soprattutto, Genova. Alcuni suoi iniziali lavori si considerano ormai fondamentali: non solo per la biografia dell’architetto e scenografo ferrarese Giovanni Battista Aleotti, ma anche per quelle del compositore barocco Alessandro Stradella e del conte genovese Giacomo Durazzo, promotore della riforma dell’opera seria a Vienna. Altrettanto si può dire di altri suoi contributi sulla diffusione dell’opera barocca “alla veneziana”, sulla gestione dei teatri d’opera fra Sei e Settecento, il ballo teatrale e l’opera ottocentesca al Teatro Carlo Felice di Genova e l’Opéra di Parigi. 



Rocio Martínez

Rocío Martínez is a Spanish postgraduate student at the Distance Learning University of Spain (UNED) and is specialized on Charles II’s reign and the relationships between the Spanish Monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire in the seventeenth century. Currently she is working on her dissertation on Charles II’s succession under the supervision of Luis Antonio Ribot García, member of the Royal Academy of History of Spain. She has recently obtained a four-year FPI (Formación de Personal Investigador) grant for her dissertation. She works as associate professor and is member of a research project on the Spanish Monarchy and the European balance in the seventeenth century Europe, directed by Luis Antonio Ribot.



Laura Mesotten

Laura Mesotten obtained her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in history as well as a master’s degree in cultural studies at the University of Leuven. Currently she is working on her dissertation at the European University Institute in Florence. Her research focuses on the household, networks and material culture of French ambassadors in Venice during the second half of the sixteenth century. She is involved as editor in the launching of a new online journal devoted to early modern diplomacy entitled Legatio: The Journal for Renaissance and Early Modern Diplomatic Studies.



Laura Oliván Santaliestra 

Laura Oliván Santaliestra received her PhD in Early Modern History from the Complutensian University of Madrid with the dissertation entitled Mariana de Austria en la encrucijada política del siglo XVII. Her publications include articles on power, images, women’s politics and cultural activities at Baroque courts. She has also published two books: Mariana de Austria: Imagen poder y diplomacia de una reina cortesana (2006) and Rainhas de Portugal e Espanha. Isabel de Bourbon (2012). She is currently Intra-European Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellow at the University of Vienna with a project entitled “Imperial Ambassadresses Between the Courts of Madrid and Vienna (1650–1700): Diplomacy, Sociability and Culture”.



Matthias J. Pernerstorfer

Born in 1976, Eggenburg, Lower Austria. He studied theatre, film and media in Vienna and Munich, having completed a dissertation on the character of the parasite in Ancient Greek Comedy (2001). He received a fellowship (DOC) from the Austrian Academy of Sciences for a thesis on the Colax of Menander from 2003 to 2005. Afterwards he worked for the Viennese Da Ponte Institute for Libretto Studies, Don Juan Research und History of Collecting from 2005 to 2006. Since 2007 he is member of the Don Juan Archiv Wien, working on different projects on the popular theatre in Vienna in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since 2011 he is director of the Don Juan Archiv Wien. Author and editor of various publications, including Bibliographica 1 & 2, ed. by M. J. P.: Theater – Zettel – Sammlungen. Erschließung, Digitalisierung, Forschung, Wien: Hollitzer Verlag 2012 and Theater – Zettel – Sammlungen 2. Bestände, Erschließung, Forschung, Wien: Hollitzer Verlag 2015; Summa Summarum 1 6 2, ed. by M. J. P.: Reinhart Meyer, Schriften zur Theater- und Kulturgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts, Wien: Hollitzer Verlag 2012 and Herbert Seifert, Texte zur Musikdramatik im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Aufsätze und Vorträge, Wien: Hollitzer Verlag 2014; Theater in Böhmen, Mähren und Schlesien. Von den Anfängen bis zum Ausgang des 18. Jahrhunderts. Ein Lexikon. Neu bearbeitete, deutschsprachige Ausgabe, ed. by Alena Jakubcová and M. J. P., Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 2013 (= Theatergeschichte Österreichs X: Donaumonarchie/Heft 6); Adolf Primmer, Texte zur Handlungsgliederung in Nea und Palliata, ed. by M. J. P. and Alfred Dunshirn, Berlin – New York: De Gruyter 2015 (= Untersuchungen zur antiken Literatur und Geschichte 118).



Claudia Römer

After Turkish Studies/Arabic Studies, Claudia Römer received her PhD degree at the University of Vienna in 1980. Between 1979 and 1984 she obtained scholarships and worked in the edition of Ottoman documents of the Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv of Vienna. Since 1984 she is a lecturer at the Oriental Institute of the University of Vienna. In 1985 she became Assistant Professor at the same institute. In 1992 she completed her “Habilitation” at the Faculty of Humanities of Vienna University and became Associate Professor. In 2014 she received “Liyakat Nişanı” (Order for the Merit) awarded by the Turkish President Abdullah Gül.



Tracey A. Sowerby

Tracey A. Sowerby is a Senior College Lecturer at Keble College, University of Oxford. She has published a monograph of Sir Richard Morison, a leading English humanist and evangelical, as well as a range of articles and essays on English diplomacy, print culture, political culture and religion. Currently she is writing two books for Oxford University Press: a cultural history of the Tudor Diplomatic Corps and a cultural history of Tudor diplomatic practice.



Suna Suner

Dr Suna Suner is a theatre scholar and stage performer. Born in Ankara, she received her B.A. in Conference Translation & Interpretation from Hacettepe University. She taught at Istanbul Bilgi University between the years 1996–2002 and in 2004 received her M.A. degree in Performing Arts from Middlesex University in London. She has continued her performance work mainly in Istanbul and Vienna (1997–2015). Since 2007 she has been a member of Don Juan Archiv Wien’s team, conducting research in theatre and diplomatic history in an Ottoman-European context. Since 2008 she has co-directed and organized Don Juan Archiv Wien’s international symposia series “Ottoman Empire & European Theatre”. In 2013 she received her doctoral degree from the Institute of Theatre, Film & Media Studies at the University of Vienna. Other projects conducted at Don Juan Archiv Wien include “Theatre and Diplomacy”, “Sefâretnâmes – Ottoman Embassy Reports Edition”, “İlber Ortaylı Lectures”and “Ottoman Roundtables”.



Luis Tercero Casado

Doctoral Student at the University of Vienna, his main field of research is the relations between both lines of the House of Habsburg between the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659), which is the topic of his PhD thesis. Within this frame, other fields of interest are history of the House of Austria during the seventeenth century, early modern diplomatic history and the courtly society in Vienna. His most relevant publications are the book chapters: “Westfalia inconclusa: España y la restitución de Frankenthal (1649–1653)”, in Martínez Millán, J. and González Cuerva, R. (coords.), La dinastía de los Austria: las relaciones entre la Monarquía Católica y el Imperio, (Madrid 2010), “Viena española. Una aproximación a la presencia hispana en la corte imperial durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVII”, in Jiménez Estrella, A., Lozano Navarro, J. J., Sánchez-Montes González, F. and Birriel Salcedo, Margarita Mª (eds.), Construyendo historia. Estudios en torno a Juan Luis Castellano, Granada 2013, and ¿Pax non sancta? La postura de la diplomacia española ante la política religiosa del emperador Fernando III en la Paz de Westfalia”, en García Martín, Pedro y Quirós Rosado, Roberto, Las cruzadas modernas y los antemurales de la fe, Madrid, UAM/Ministerio de Defensa, 2015; and the articles in peer-reviewed journals: “A Fluctuating Ascendancy: The “Spanish Party” at the Imperial Court of Vienna (1631–1659)”, en González Cuerva, Rubén y Caldari, Valentina (eds.), The Secret Mechanisms of Courts: Factions in Early Modern Europe,, Monográfico 2, Año 7 (2015) and “La jornada de la reina Mariana de Austria a España: divergencias políticas y tensión protocolar en el seno de la Casa de Austria (1648–1649)”, Revista Hispania, vol. 71, 239 (2011).



Pia Wallnig

Born in Salzburg in 1976, Pia Wallnig studied history and French language at the University of Salzburg. In 2001, she received a postgraduate degree (Master of Advanced Studies) at the Austrian Institute of Historical Research (Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung) in Vienna. Since 2002 she has been working as an archivist at the Austrian State Archives (ÖSTA), engaged at various departments. She is a staff member of the Allgemeines Verwaltungs-, Finanz- und Hofkammerarchiv (AVAFHKA), where she is in charge of the sections of family, estate and personal holdings of the Habsburg Monarchy. Her current research, also a PhD project at the University of Vienna, is on the history of aristocratic women and diplomacy, more specifically the Austrian vicereines of Naples, 1707–1734.





Letztes Update: 11.03.2016
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